The city of Madurai for huge increase of population in the decade of 1971- 81 and the growth rate became as higher 49.5%. To cater to this unmanageable population some portions of Madurai district was included in Dindigul in 1984.The decade of 1981-91 was 14.6%. Subsequently the part of the city was included in Theni district in 1997. Hence, the growth rate was negative.
The jurisdiction of Madurai Corporation has been extended on 28th September 2010, to include the areas of the city Corporation, 3 unicipalities, 3 Urban Local Bodies and 11 Village Panchayat located around the Madurai Corporation. Consequent to this extension, the total area of the Corporation has increased considerably from 51.82 Sq.KM to 147.997 Sq. Km and the numbers of the wards have increased from 72 to 100. According to 2011 provisional census data, Madurai city had a population of 10,16,885 (10.17 lakhs) before expansion of city limit within the corporation area. The extended Municipal Corporation had a population of 14,70,755 (14.71 lakhs) persons as per population enumeration data of the Municipal Corporation.
POPULATION GROWTH IN MADURAI
population in madurai
Because of these changes in administrative boundaries, the growth rate of the decade 1981-91 and 1991-2001 will not be considered in the population projection method.
The growth trend of Madurai finds a steep rise in the decade of 1971-1981 which is the period in which the city saw a growth when the industries were already established and fully functional. The growth can thus be conferred to the growth of the power sector.
POPULATION GROWTH IN MADURAI
POPULATION DENSITY OF MADURAI
A study of the present population density of wards of Madurai shows that the highest density is observed in the wards at the core of the city. The study has been done by assigning a range code to the density value of the wards as below:
DENSITY IN PPH
The highest density is observed in 5 wards with numbers 91, 68, 13, 70 and 7 where density ranges for more than 1000 persons per hectare (ppH). In the range of 500 ppH to 1000 ppH there are 19 wards all located at the central core part of the city. The wards at the periphery of the city which have been newly constituted with revised delineated boundaries have the lowest density.
Hence, it is evident that land availability for construction of new toilets shall be more in the peripheral wards.
POPULATION DENSITY OF MADURAI
SEX RATIO OF MADURAI
The sex ratio of 979 females per 1,000 males is higher than the national average of 944. The urban agglomeration population is 1,462,420. Madurai metropolitan area constitutes the third largest metropolitan area in Tamil Nadu and the 24th in India. 8.99 per cent of the population was under six years of age.
Thus while planning for provision of utilities and safe access to sanitation women have to be given importance.
In education section, total literates in Madurai city are 834,104 of which 433,860 are males while 400,244 are females. Average literacy rate of Madurai city is 90.91 percent of which male and female literacy was 94.77 and 87.06 percent.
Thus awareness building initiatives may be designed keeping in mind the high literacy rate.
Madurai traditionally was an agrarian society with paddy as the main crop. Cotton crop cultivation in the regions with black soil in Madurai district was introduced during the Nayaka rule during the 16th century to increase the revenue from agriculture. The paddy fields cultivated in the Vaigai delta across Madurai North, Melur, Nilakottai and Uthamapalayam are known as "double-crop paddy belts" Farmers in the district supplement their income with subsidiary occupations like dairy farming, poultry farming, pottery, brick making, mat-weaving and carpentry. Madurai is famed for its jasmine plantation, called "Madurai Malli", primarily carried out at the foothills of Kodaikanal hills and traded at the Madurai morning flower market. Averages of 2,000 farmers sell flowers daily at the flower market. Madurai is one of the few rubber growing areas in South India and there are rubber based industries in Madurai. Gloves, sports goods, mats, other utility products and automobile rubber components are the most numerous items produced by these industries. TVS Srichakra (tyre manufacturing), Sundaram Industries (Rubber Division, Coach Division), Fenner India, Hi-Tech Arai Ltd and Lanxess India are some of the rubber based industries in the city. Automobile producers like General Motors, Ford, Toyotanand Honda are the major consumers of components produced in the city. The city is home to one of themtop motor cycle manufacturers inIndia, the TVS Group. There are numerous textile, granite and chemical industries operating in Madurai. Madurai is promoted as a second-tier city for IT and some software companies like Honeywell Technology Solutions have opened their centers in Madurai. Software Technology Parks of India, an agency of the Government of India, has authorized several such companies to receive benefits under its national information technology development program. The state government proposed two IT based Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in Madurai and these have been fully occupied by various IT companies.
WORK FORCE PARTICIPATION
The Madurai ranks 9th w.r.t the share in State GDP having 3.67% contribution to the total state GDP.
Major economic activities are trade & commerce, tourism related activities and to some extent industrial activities.
The city houses various health care facilities, automobile, rubber, chemical, and textile manufacturing industries and has also developed as a second tier city for information technology as well.
Increasing trend of tertiary sector with involvement of 87% population indicating major role of tourism and trade.
The secondary sector comprising majorly the household handloom industry has declined from 4.06% in 2001 to 3.61% in 2011.
The WPR is 39% showing an increase over the past decade .
Share of marginal workers has grown from 4.31% in 2001 to 7.49% in 2011 indicating the high percentage of daily wages workers coming from adjacent areas to the city.
WORK FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE
TOTAL MAIN WORKER
TOTAL NON WORKER
WORK PARTICIPATION RATE
Present housing stock is adequate with 80% houses under residential use and 20% under mixed area.
The growth in housing stock during the period of 2001-2011 was 27%.
There is considerable increase in number of liveable (67%) and dilapidated houses (34%) in the city.
DETAILS OF HOUSING STOCK
TOTAL CENSUS HOUSES
RESIDENTIAL CUM OTHER PURPOSE
QUALITY OF HOUSING
QUALITY OF HOUSING
Madurai has been an academic center of learning of Tamil culture, literature, art, music and dance for centuries. Madurai Kamaraj University (originally called Madurai University), established in 1966, is the state run university that has 109 affiliated arts and science colleges in Madurai and neighboring districts. There are 47 approved institutions of the university in and around the city consisting of autonomous colleges, aided colleges, self-financing colleges, constituent colleges, evening colleges and other approved institutions. There are seven polytechnics and five Industrial training institutes (ITIs) in Madurai, with the Government ITI and the Government Polytechnic for Women being the most prominent of them all.
The government institutes, namely, the Madurai Medical College and the Homoeopathic Medical College, along with the 11 paramedical institutes constitute the medical and paramedical paradigm of Madurai. The agricultural college and research institute in Madurai, started in 1965, by the state government provides agricultural education to aspirants in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu. There are a total of 369 primary, secondary and higher secondary schools in the city.
Planning for health becomes an integral part of metropolitan planning and health status of population is an important indicator of human resource development. Investments in health sector have direct relationship indicators place it near the top among the States of India. Policy of the Government is to provide a healthy and disease-free life to the people of Tamil Nadu. Madurai has established itself as the major health center in Southern Tamilnadu and is fast becoming the health destination of choice for people in southern part of Tamilnadu.
The city attracts a large number of tourists from within the country and abroad. About 9,100,000 tourists visited Madurai in 2010, out of which foreigners numbered 524,000.The palace complex of Thirumalai Nayak Palace was constructed in the Indo-Saracenic style by Thirumalai Nayakar in 1636 CE. It is a national monument maintained by the Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department. The daily sound and light show organized by the department explains the virtues of King Thirumalai and the features of the palace. The palace of Rani Mangamma has been renovated to house one of the five Gandhi Sanghralayas (Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai) in the country. The people of Madurai celebrate numerous festivals, which include Meenakshi Tirukkalyanam, the Chittirai Festival and the Car Festival. The annual 10-day Meenakshi Tirukalyanam festival, also called Chittirai festival, celebrated during April-May every year attracts nearly million visitors.